Fabric analysis methods and steps?

Due to the organization of the fabric, the arrangement of the dyed yarns, the raw materials and the number of yarns, the density of the yarns, the twisting and twisting of the yarns, and the structure and finishing methods of the yarns. Therefore, the formed fabric is not the same in appearance.
In order to produce, innovate or imitate a product, it is necessary to grasp the information on the organizational structure of the fabric and the technical conditions of the fabric. For this purpose, a thorough and detailed analysis of the fabric is performed in order to obtain correct analysis results and to provide information for the design, modification or imitation of fabrics.
In order to obtain more accurate analysis results, the items to be analyzed and their order of precedence must be planned before analysis. Be careful during the operation, and try to save the cloth sample material under the condition of satisfying the analysis.
Fabric analysis is generally performed in the following order.
A: When sampling and analyzing fabrics, the accuracy of the data is related to the location of the sample and the size of the sample. Therefore, the method of sampling should be stipulated. Due to the extreme variety of fabrics and the large differences between them, the choice of samples in practical work should be determined according to the specific circumstances.
(1) After the fabric is taken off the sampling position, the width and length of the fabric are slightly changed due to the balance between the warp and weft yarn tension. This change causes differences in the density of the fabric at the edges and at the middle and at both ends of the fabric. In addition, during the dyeing and finishing process, the changes produced at the two ends, edges, and center of the fabric are also different. In order to make the measured data accurate and representative, it is generally stipulated that: when taking samples from the entire fabric, the samples The distance to the cloth edge is not less than 5cm, and the distance from both ends is not less than 1.5-3m on the cotton fabric; not less than 3m on the wool fabric; about 3.5-5m on the silk fabric.
In addition, the sample should not have significant defects, and strive to be in its original natural state to ensure the accuracy of the analysis results.
(b) Sample size The size of the sample area should vary with the fabric type and organizational structure. Since the fabric analysis is a consumption test, the size of the sample should be reduced under the premise of ensuring the correct analysis data according to the spirit of saving. Simple tissue samples can be made smaller, typically 15cm*15cm. The color fabric with larger tissue circulation can take 20cm*20cm. Color loop fabrics (such as sheets) should take at least one area of ​​colored yarn. For large jacquard (such as quilt, carpet) due to the large number of cycles of the warp and weft, the general analysis of part of the representative structure can be. Therefore, generally take 20cm*20cm, or 25cm*25cm. If the sample size is small, it can be analyzed as long as it is slightly larger than 5cm*5cm.
Two: To determine the positive and negative fabrics for the analysis of the swatches, we must first determine the fabric's front and back.
The front and back of a fabric is generally judged by its appearance effect. Here are some common ways to judge.
1. The pattern on the front of the fabric is generally clearer and more beautiful than the reverse.
2. The appearance of a plant with a grid pattern and a pattern-matched fabric must be clear and pleasing to the front.
3. The ribs and concave and convex fabrics are closely and delicately fronted, with strips or pattern ridges, while the reverse surface is rough and has long float lines.
4. Raising fabrics: single-sided raised fabrics, which have plush fabrics on one side of the fabric. Double-faced plush fabrics are clean with fluff, and the neat side is positive.
5. Observe the fabric side of the fabric: If the fabric is clean, the neat side is the fabric front.
6. Double-layered, multi-layered and multi-fabric, if the warp and weft densities of the front and back surfaces are different, then it is generally preferable that the front side has a larger density or a positive material.
7. Leno Fabric: The lines are clearly twisted on the front side of the fabric.
8. Towel fabric: The front side of the large density of terry.
Most fabrics have obvious differences on the front and back, but there are also many fabrics with very similar front and back surfaces, and both surfaces can be applied. Therefore, it is not necessary to distinguish between the positive and negative sides of such fabrics.
Three: Determine the fabric's latitude and longitude After determining the front and back of the fabric, we need to determine which direction is the warp and which direction is the weft in the fabric. This is to analyze the fabric density, the number of warp and weft yarns, and the organization of the fabric. , is a prerequisite.
The main basis for distinguishing fabrics in latitude and longitude is as follows.
1. If the sample of the fabric being analyzed is edging, the yarn parallel to the hem is the warp, and the weft is perpendicular to the hem.
2. The warp yarns are contained in the slurry, and the weft yarns are not contained in the slurry.
3. Generally, the one with the highest density of the fabric is the warp, and the lower density is the weft.
4. If the scar is obvious, the direction of the scar is the warp direction of the fabric.
5. When one group of several yarns in a fabric is a strand, and the other group is a single yarn, the yarn is generally a warp yarn and the single yarn is a weft yarn.
6. If the yarn formation direction of the single yarn fabric is not the same, the Z twist yarn is the warp direction, and the S twist yarn is the weft direction.
7. If the degree of twist of the fabric is different, the majority with large twist is the longitudinal direction, and the one with small twist is the weft direction.
8. If the special number of warp and weft yarns of the fabric, the twist direction and the twist direction are not much different, the yarn is even and the gloss is better.
9. Towel fabrics, where the terry loop yarns are warp yarns, and the loopless yarns are weft yarns.
10. The sliver of a sliver fabric is usually warped.
11. If the fabric has a system of yarns with many different special numbers, this direction is the longitudinal direction.
12. Leno fabrics, where twisted yarns are warp yarns, and non-twisted yarns are weft yarns.
13. In the interweaving of different raw materials, generally cotton wool intertwined with cotton and linen intertwined fabrics, cotton as warp yarns; wool intertwined fabrics, silk as warp yarns; wool silk intertwined fabrics, then silk, cotton as warp yarns; natural silk and silk yarn In the cross-fabric, natural yarns are warp yarns; in natural silk and rayon cross-fabrics, natural yarns are warp yarns.
Because the fabric is extremely versatile. Therefore, the requirements for fabric raw materials and organizational structure are also varied. Therefore, when judging, the specific conditions of the fabric should also be determined.

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